Main Article Content
Background: Increasing life expectancy around the world, an outstanding achievement of our century, has brought with it new public health challenges. India is the second most populous country in the world, with over 72 million inhabitants above 60 years of age as of 2001. The life expectancy in India increased from 32 years in 1947 to over 66 years in 2010, with 8.0% of the population now reaching over 60 years of age. Few studies in India target the health, especially mental health, of this geriatric population. This study aims to estimate the current prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the geriatric population of the rural area of Singanodi,Karnataka, India.
Methods: This cross sectional, epidemiological, community-based study was conducted in a rural health training area of Singanodi, Raichur District, Karnataka, India.The General Health Questionnaire-12, Mini Mental State Examination, and Geriatric Depression Scale were administered to 366 participants. Chi square tests with Yates correction were utilized for statistical analysis using SPSS 19.0 software.
Results:We found that 33.9% of the geriatric population in the selected province were above the threshold for mental illness based on the GHQ-12 questionnaire. Females had a higher prevalence of mental disorder at 77.6% (152 out of 196) as compared to males who had a prevalence of 42.4% (72 out of 170). The most common psychiatric disorder was depression (21.9%), and generalized anxiety was present in 10.7% of the study population. Prevalence of cognitive impairment was 16.3%, with a significantly higher percentage of affected individuals in 80+ age group.
Conclusion: Mental disorders are common among elderly people, but they are not well documented in rural India. The assessment of psychiatric disorder prevalence will help strengthen psycho-geriatric services and thus improve the quality of life of the elderly. A system that ensures comprehensive health care will have to be developed for this purpose as part of our future efforts.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- The Author retains copyright in the Work, where the term “Work” shall include all digital objects that may result in subsequent electronic publication or distribution.
- Upon acceptance of the Work, the author shall grant to the Publisher the right of first publication of the Work.
- The Author shall grant to the Publisher and its agents the nonexclusive perpetual right and license to publish, archive, and make accessible the Work in whole or in part in all forms of media now or hereafter known under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License or its equivalent, which, for the avoidance of doubt, allows others to copy, distribute, and transmit the Work under the following conditions:
- Attribution—other users must attribute the Work in the manner specified by the author as indicated on the journal Web site;
- The Author is able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the nonexclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the Work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), as long as there is provided in the document an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post online a prepublication manuscript (but not the Publisher’s final formatted PDF version of the Work) in institutional repositories or on their Websites prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work. Any such posting made before acceptance and publication of the Work shall be updated upon publication to include a reference to the Publisher-assigned DOI (Digital Object Identifier) and a link to the online abstract for the final published Work in the Journal.
- Upon Publisher’s request, the Author agrees to furnish promptly to Publisher, at the Author’s own expense, written evidence of the permissions, licenses, and consents for use of third-party material included within the Work, except as determined by Publisher to be covered by the principles of Fair Use.
- The Author represents and warrants that:
- the Work is the Author’s original work;
- the Author has not transferred, and will not transfer, exclusive rights in the Work to any third party;
- the Work is not pending review or under consideration by another publisher;
- the Work has not previously been published;
- the Work contains no misrepresentation or infringement of the Work or property of other authors or third parties; and
- the Work contains no libel, invasion of privacy, or other unlawful matter.
- The Author agrees to indemnify and hold Publisher harmless from Author’s breach of the representations and warranties contained in Paragraph 6 above, as well as any claim or proceeding relating to Publisher’s use and publication of any content contained in the Work, including third-party content.
Revised 7/16/2018. Revision Description: Removed outdated link.
Morley JE. Successful aging or aging successfully. JAMDA. 2008;10(2):85-86.
Palacios R. The future of global ageing. Int J Epidemiol. 2002;31(4):786-791.
Cassel CK. Successful aging. How increased life expectancy and medical advances are changing geriatric care. Geriatrics. 2001;56(1):35-39.
Population Reference Bureau. Today's research on aging: Issue archive. 2012; http://www.prb.org/About/ProgramsProjects/Aging/TodaysResearchAging/IssueArchive.aspx.
Madhu T, Sreedevi A. A study of socio demographic profile of geriatric population in the field practice area of Kurnool Medical College. IJRDH. 2013;1(2):69-76.
Nair SS, Hiremath SG, Ramesh, Pooja, Nair SS. Depression among geriatrics: Prevalence and associated factors. IJCRR. 2013;5(8):110-112.
World Health Organization (WHO). Depression. 2012;
Motohashi Y, Kaneko Y, Sasaki H, Yamaji M. A decrease in suicide rates in Japanese rural towns after community-based intervention by the health promotion approach. Community Ment Health J. 2007;37(5):593-599.
Walston J, Hadley EC, Ferrucci L, et al. Research agenda for frailty in older adults: toward a better understanding of physiology and etiology: summary from the American Geriatrics Society/National Institute on Aging Research Conference on Frailty in Older Adults. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2006;54(6):991-1001.
Houttekier D, Cohen J, Bilsen J, Addington-Hall J, Onwuteaka-Philipsen BD, Deliens L. Place of death of older persons with dementia. A study in five European countries. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2010;58(4):751-756.
Mills TL, Cody-Rydzewski S. Psychology of older adults: Exploring the effects of class and culture on the mental health of African Americans. In: Chang EC, Downey CA, eds. Handbook of race and development in mental health. New York: Springer; 2012:67-85.
Lawson R, Davies BP, Bebbington A. The UK home help service in England and Wales. In: Jamieson A, ed. Home Care for Older People in Europe: A Comparison of Policies and Practices. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1991:63-98.
Banerjee S, Macdonald A. Mental disorder in an elderly home care population: Associations with health and social service use. Br J Psychiatry. 1996;168(6):750-756.
Pathak JD. Our elderly: Some effects of aging in Indian subjects. 1978; Medical Research Centre of the Bombay Hospital Trust, Bombay.
Nair TK. Older people in rural Tamil Nadu. Paper presented at: Madras School of Social Work1980; Madras.
Venkoba Rao A. National task force study on problems of the aged seeking psychiatric help. I. C. M. R. 1987. Mental health status of the elderly. Vol 26: ICMR Bulletin; 1996:5.
Ingle GK, Nath A. Geriatric health in India: Concerns and soluations. Indian J Community Med. 2008;33(4):214-218.
World Health Organization (WHO). Definition of an older or elderly person. Health statistics and information systems 2014; www.who.int/healthinfo/survey/ageingdefnolder/en/.
Tiwari SC, Srivastava S. Geropsyciatric morbidity in rural Uttar Pradesh. Indian J Psychiatry. 1998;40(3):266-273.
Goldberg DP. A user's guide to the General Health Questionnaire. Windsor, Berks: NFER-Nelson; 1988.
Burns A, Lawlor B, Craig S. Rating scales in old age psychiatry. Br J Psychiatry. 2002;180:161-167.
F. FM, Folstein SE, McHugh PR. "Mini-mental state". A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. J Psychiatr Res. 1975;12(3):189-198.
Yesavage JA, Brink TL, Rose TL, et al. Development and validation of a geriatric depression screening scale: A preliminary report. J Psychiatr Res. 1982-1983;17(1):37-49.
Blacker D. Psychiatric rating scales. In: Sadock BJ, Sadock V, eds. Comprehensive textbook of psychiatry. 8th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2005:929-955.
Ramachandran V, Menon SM, Ramamurti P. Psychiatric disorders in subjects aged over fifty. Indian J Psychiatry. 1979;22:193-198.
Copeland JR, Dewey ME, Griffiths-Jones HM. A computerized psychiatric diagnostic system and case nomenclature for elderly subjects: GMS and AGECAT. Psychol Med. 1986;16(1):89-99.
Patel V, Kirkwood BR, Pednekar S, et al. Gender disadvantage and reproductive health risk factors for common mental disorders in women: A community survey in India. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2006;63(4):404-413.
Sood A, Singh P, Gargi PD. Psychiatric morbidity in non-psychiatric geriatric inpatients. Indian J Psychiatry. 2006;48(1):56-61.
Pereira B, Andrew G, Pednekar S, Pai R, Pelto P, Patel V. The explanatory models of depression in low income countries: listening to women in India. J Affect Disord. 2007;102(1-3):209-218.
Ramsay R, Welch S, Youard E. Needs of women patients with mental illness. BJPsych Advances. 2001;7(2):85-92.
Steadman HJ, Osher FC, Robbins PC, Case B, Samuels S. Prevalence of serious mental illness among jail inmates. Psychiatr Serv. 2009;60(6):761-765.
Lindesay J, Briggs K, Murphy E. The Guy's/Age Concern survey. Prevalence rates of cognitive impairment, depression and anxiety in an urban elderly community. Br J Psychiatry. 1989;155:317-329.
Beekman AT, Copeland JR, Prince MJ. Review of community prevalence of depression in later life. Br J Psychiatry. 1999;174:307-311.
Rao AV, Madhavan T. Gerospsychiatric morbidity survey in a semi-urban area near Madurai. Indian J Psychiatry. 1982;24(3):258-267.
Ritchie K, Artero S, Beluche I, et al. Prevalence of DSM-IV psychiatric disorder in the French elderly population. Br J Psychiatry. 2004;184(147-152).
Lorig KR, Ritter P, Stewart AL, et al. Chronic disease self-management program: 2-year health status and health care utilization outcomes. Med Care. 2001;39(11):1217-1223.
Gill TM, Desai MM, Gahbauer EA, Holford TR, Williams CS. Restricted activity among community-living older persons: Incidence, precipitants, and health care utilization. Ann Intern Med. 2001;135(5):313-321.