Main Article Content
Introduction: Zoonotic disease outbreaks have surged in the last two decades. These include severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Hendra virus, Nipah virus, influenza viruses, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) coronavirus, and ebola. One Health is the initiative of an inclusive collaboration linking human, animal, and environmental health. One Health is advocated through an intersectoral coordination to combat zoonoses, and the term has evolved over centuries. The primary aim of this literature review was to examine the change in the definition of the term One Health over time, particuarly following the the introduction of the latest definition in 2007 by the American Medical Association and the American Veterinary Medical Association.
Methods: This review was conducted in four phases. The first phase consisted of a general PubMed search for the phrase “One Health” for every literature published up to December 2014. Then an advanced search was carried out using “One Health” in conjunction with the terms “zoonosis” and “zoonoses” in PubMed for the time period between January 2007 and December 2014. The articles found were then categorized based on the type of journals in which the articles were published. For the second phase, “One Health” was searched as a Medical subject heading (MeSH) term, which is the National Library of Medicine controlled vocabulary thesaurus used for indexing articles. In the third phase, One Health advocate organizations were found using Google search engine. During the final phase, One Health was searched in Google scholar, examined by Google trends, and analyzed by Google ngram.
Results: Before 2007, One Health had many connotations to health in the medical literature with an incomplete adherence to the usage of One Health linking zoonoses. The Google trends analysis shows an overal steady increase of the search of One Health from 2007 to 2014, which is consistent with the findings of articles from Pubmed.
Discussion: Our results indicate that the linkage between the terms One Health and zoonoses started in 2007, which correlates with the joint declaration made by the American Medical Association and the American Veterinary Medical Association in 2007. We suggest creating a MeSH term for One Health in the PubMed database to support more specific research on zoonoses, and exploring the possibility of a patent of the term One Health to support global health and evidence based public health.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- The Author retains copyright in the Work, where the term “Work” shall include all digital objects that may result in subsequent electronic publication or distribution.
- Upon acceptance of the Work, the author shall grant to the Publisher the right of first publication of the Work.
- The Author shall grant to the Publisher and its agents the nonexclusive perpetual right and license to publish, archive, and make accessible the Work in whole or in part in all forms of media now or hereafter known under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License or its equivalent, which, for the avoidance of doubt, allows others to copy, distribute, and transmit the Work under the following conditions:
- Attribution—other users must attribute the Work in the manner specified by the author as indicated on the journal Web site;
- The Author is able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the nonexclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the Work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), as long as there is provided in the document an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post online a prepublication manuscript (but not the Publisher’s final formatted PDF version of the Work) in institutional repositories or on their Websites prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work. Any such posting made before acceptance and publication of the Work shall be updated upon publication to include a reference to the Publisher-assigned DOI (Digital Object Identifier) and a link to the online abstract for the final published Work in the Journal.
- Upon Publisher’s request, the Author agrees to furnish promptly to Publisher, at the Author’s own expense, written evidence of the permissions, licenses, and consents for use of third-party material included within the Work, except as determined by Publisher to be covered by the principles of Fair Use.
- The Author represents and warrants that:
- the Work is the Author’s original work;
- the Author has not transferred, and will not transfer, exclusive rights in the Work to any third party;
- the Work is not pending review or under consideration by another publisher;
- the Work has not previously been published;
- the Work contains no misrepresentation or infringement of the Work or property of other authors or third parties; and
- the Work contains no libel, invasion of privacy, or other unlawful matter.
- The Author agrees to indemnify and hold Publisher harmless from Author’s breach of the representations and warranties contained in Paragraph 6 above, as well as any claim or proceeding relating to Publisher’s use and publication of any content contained in the Work, including third-party content.
Revised 7/16/2018. Revision Description: Removed outdated link.
Taylor LH, Latham SM, Woolhouse ME. Risk factors for human disease emergence. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2001;356(1411):983-989.
Wang LF, Crameri G. Emerging zoonotic viral diseases. Rev Sci Tech Off Int Epiz. 2014;33(2):569-581.
Li W, Wong SK, Fang L, et al. Animal origins of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus: Insight from ACE2-S-protein interactions. J Virol. 2006;80(9):4211-4219.
Epstein JH, Field HE, Luby S, Pulliam JR, Daszak P. Nipah virus: Impact, origins, and causes of emergence. Curr Infect Dis Rep. 2006;8(1):59-65.
World Health Organization. Avian influenza. 2014; http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/avian_influenza/en/. Accessed June 25, 2015.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS). 2015; http://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/mers/faq.html. Accessed June 25, 2015.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Ebola (Ebola virus disease). 2015; http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/outbreaks/history/chronology.html. Accessed June 25, 2015.
Food and Agriculture Organization, United Nations. Thoughts of FAO on 'One Health'. 2012; http://www.fao.org/ag/againfo/home/en/news_archive/2010_one-health.html. Accessed June 9, 2015.
Cardiff RD, Ward JM, Barthold SW. 'One medicine---one pathology': are veterinary and human pathology prepared? Lab Invest. 2008;88(1):18-26.
Schwabe CW. Veterinary Medicine and Human Health. 3rd ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins; 1984.
Saunders LZ. Virchow’s contributions to veterinary medicine: Celebrated then, forgotten now. Vet Pathol. 2000;37(3):199-207.
American Veterinary Medical Association. One Health - What is One Health? https://www.avma.org/KB/Resources/Reference/Pages/One-Health94.aspx. Accessed June 9, 2015.
Conrad PA, Mazet JA, Clifford D, Scott C, Wilkes M. Evolution of a transdisciplinary "One Medicine-One Health" approach to global health education at the University of California, Davis. Prev Vet Med. 2009;92(4):268-274.
Food and Agriculture Organization, Office of International Education, World Health Organization, UN System Influenza Coordination, UNICEF, WORLD bank. Contributing to One World, One Health: A strategic framework for reducing risks of infectious diseases at the animal-human-ecosystems interface. 2008; http://www.fao.org/docrep/011/aj137e/aj137e00.HTM. Accessed June 9, 2015.
World Organisation for Animal Health. One Health - One Health at at glance. 2015; http://www.oie.int/for-the-media/onehealth/. Accessed June 9, 2015.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). History of One Health. 2015; http://www.cdc.gov/onehealth/people-events.html. Accessed June 9, 2015.
National Library of Medicine. Medical subject headings. 2014; http://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/MBrowser.html. Accessed May 14, 2014.
Google. Data source: Google trends. 2015; www.google.com/trends. Accessed June 10, 2015.
Schmidt D, Heckendorf C. ngram: An n-gram Babbler. 2014; http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/ngram/. Accessed June 10, 2015.
One Health Global Network. What is One Health? 2015; http://www.onehealthglobal.net/what-is-one-health/. Accessed June 10, 2015.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). One Health in action. 2013; http://www.cdc.gov/onehealth/in-action/index.html. Accessed June 10, 2015.
Gibbs EP. Emerging zoonotic epidemics in the interconnected global community. Vet Rec. 2005;157(22):673-679.