Distribution of Beijing Genotype Among Clinical Isolates of M. tuberculosis Circulating in Kazakhstan
Main Article Content
Introduction. Methods of genotyping of M. tuberculosis play an important role in tuber?ulosis (TB) infection control. These techniques are used to detect or exclude laboratory errors, control recurrent cases, and determine ways of TB transmission. Today, there are more than 10 methods of genotyping; MIRU-VNTR is one of the most widely used methods in the world. In this study we aimed to estimate biological diversity of clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis from different regions of Kazakhstan based on MIRU-VNTR analysis.
Materials and methods. MIRU-VNTR was used to genotype 134 clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis isolated from new cases and recurrent cases of TB from different regions of Kazakhstan. Amplification was done using 15 MIRU-VNTR loci. Determination of the number of tandem repeats in the corresponding locus was performed via Quantity One v.4.4.0 (BioRad, USA) software. H37Rv (NC_000962) reference strain was used as a positive control.
Results. Phylogenic tree was built using www.miru-vntr.org web-resource based on the results of MIRU-VNTR analysis. Beijing family strains associated with drug resistance to antituberculosis drugs were prevalent among all isolates of M. tuberculosis circulating in Kazakhstan. Strains of the Beijing genotype were prevalent in both new cases (65%) and recurrent cases (89.4%) of tuberculosis. The second meaningful genotype that is spread in the territory of Kazakhstan is LAM, the frequency of distribution is 7.3% in new and 4.5% in recurrent cases. Other families of M. tuberculosis such as Ural, Haarlem, CAS, NEW-1, S were found in less than 4% of cases.
Conclusion. Prevalence of Beijing family strains among all isolates of M. tuberculosis from different regions of Kazakhstan was shown. Strains of this family are prevalent among young people. This genotype is responsible for ongoing TB transmission in the present time. This genotype is more virulent; therefore, investigation of the epidemiology of the Beijing genotype plays crucial role in the monitoring of tuberculosis.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- The Author retains copyright in the Work, where the term “Work” shall include all digital objects that may result in subsequent electronic publication or distribution.
- Upon acceptance of the Work, the author shall grant to the Publisher the right of first publication of the Work.
- The Author shall grant to the Publisher and its agents the nonexclusive perpetual right and license to publish, archive, and make accessible the Work in whole or in part in all forms of media now or hereafter known under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License or its equivalent, which, for the avoidance of doubt, allows others to copy, distribute, and transmit the Work under the following conditions:
- Attribution—other users must attribute the Work in the manner specified by the author as indicated on the journal Web site;
- The Author is able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the nonexclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the Work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), as long as there is provided in the document an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post online a prepublication manuscript (but not the Publisher’s final formatted PDF version of the Work) in institutional repositories or on their Websites prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work. Any such posting made before acceptance and publication of the Work shall be updated upon publication to include a reference to the Publisher-assigned DOI (Digital Object Identifier) and a link to the online abstract for the final published Work in the Journal.
- Upon Publisher’s request, the Author agrees to furnish promptly to Publisher, at the Author’s own expense, written evidence of the permissions, licenses, and consents for use of third-party material included within the Work, except as determined by Publisher to be covered by the principles of Fair Use.
- The Author represents and warrants that:
- the Work is the Author’s original work;
- the Author has not transferred, and will not transfer, exclusive rights in the Work to any third party;
- the Work is not pending review or under consideration by another publisher;
- the Work has not previously been published;
- the Work contains no misrepresentation or infringement of the Work or property of other authors or third parties; and
- the Work contains no libel, invasion of privacy, or other unlawful matter.
- The Author agrees to indemnify and hold Publisher harmless from Author’s breach of the representations and warranties contained in Paragraph 6 above, as well as any claim or proceeding relating to Publisher’s use and publication of any content contained in the Work, including third-party content.
Revised 7/16/2018. Revision Description: Removed outdated link.