Esophageal Cancer in Kazakhstan: Multi-omic Research Challenges
Main Article Content
Introduction. Esophageal cancer (EC) is the sixth most common cancer in Kazakhstan, fifth leading cause of mortality among men, and ninth leading cause of mortality among women. Advances in high-throughput sequencing over the last decade have made mapping the whole genetic variation in genome-wide scale possible. Transcriptome sequencing has become a powerful method for detecting driver mutations in cancer, since somatic point mutations as well as aberrant RNA variants, such as fusion genes and alternative splicing, can be identified. The aim of the study was to identify the genetic basis of EC by performing whole transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) study in Kazakhstani patients.
Materials and methods. We included patients with EC who had been admitted to the oncology center in Astana, Kazakhstan during the 2013-2014 year period. A pair of fresh frozen EC, its adjacent normal tissue specimen, and venous blood were obtained. So far, five pairs of EC samples were subjected to RNA-seq. Total RNA was isolated, and its quality was assessed using Agilent Bioanalyzer. The cDNA library was prepared following the standard mRNA protocol by Illumina and sequenced using Illumina HiSeq2000. Bionformatic analysis is ongoing.
Results. During 2013, a total of 74 patients with EC were hospitalized in the oncology center, Astana, Kazakhstan. Radical and palliative surgery was performed on 39 and 34 patients, respectively, and 1 patient refused surgery treatment. The median age of the patients was 66 years (range 49-86 years). 88.4% of the patients were diagnosed with advanced stages T3-T4, and 74.5% from them has dysphagia III-IV levels. 83% of the cases were squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). The major localizations for this type of cancer were the middle section (58.2%), lower section (37.2%), and upper section (4.6%) of the cases.
Conclusion. ESCC is the most common histologic subtype of esophageal cancer in our patients and is characterized by a poor prognosis. Most patients were diagnosed with late stages T3-T4. Using high throughput sequencing approach, we could potentially identify a higher number of crucial molecular pathways involved in esophageal carcinogenesis that could facilitate the development of new diagnostic and treatment strategies. The early detection of EC gives hope of a long-term survival for patients.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- The Author retains copyright in the Work, where the term “Work” shall include all digital objects that may result in subsequent electronic publication or distribution.
- Upon acceptance of the Work, the author shall grant to the Publisher the right of first publication of the Work.
- The Author shall grant to the Publisher and its agents the nonexclusive perpetual right and license to publish, archive, and make accessible the Work in whole or in part in all forms of media now or hereafter known under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License or its equivalent, which, for the avoidance of doubt, allows others to copy, distribute, and transmit the Work under the following conditions:
- Attribution—other users must attribute the Work in the manner specified by the author as indicated on the journal Web site;
- The Author is able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the nonexclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the Work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), as long as there is provided in the document an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post online a prepublication manuscript (but not the Publisher’s final formatted PDF version of the Work) in institutional repositories or on their Websites prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work. Any such posting made before acceptance and publication of the Work shall be updated upon publication to include a reference to the Publisher-assigned DOI (Digital Object Identifier) and a link to the online abstract for the final published Work in the Journal.
- Upon Publisher’s request, the Author agrees to furnish promptly to Publisher, at the Author’s own expense, written evidence of the permissions, licenses, and consents for use of third-party material included within the Work, except as determined by Publisher to be covered by the principles of Fair Use.
- The Author represents and warrants that:
- the Work is the Author’s original work;
- the Author has not transferred, and will not transfer, exclusive rights in the Work to any third party;
- the Work is not pending review or under consideration by another publisher;
- the Work has not previously been published;
- the Work contains no misrepresentation or infringement of the Work or property of other authors or third parties; and
- the Work contains no libel, invasion of privacy, or other unlawful matter.
- The Author agrees to indemnify and hold Publisher harmless from Author’s breach of the representations and warranties contained in Paragraph 6 above, as well as any claim or proceeding relating to Publisher’s use and publication of any content contained in the Work, including third-party content.
Revised 7/16/2018. Revision Description: Removed outdated link.