Main Article Content
Introduction: Childhood mortality is an important health indicator that reflects the overall health status of a population. Despite the decrease in global childhood mortality rates over the past decades, it still remains an important public health issue in Qatar.
Methods: The data from 2004-2016 were extracted from the Qatar Ministry of Public Health Birth and Death Database. International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) was used for coding the causes of death. The childhood mortality rate was defined as the probability of a child dying between the first and the fifth birthday, expressed as the number of deaths per 1,000 children surviving to 12 months of age. The sex ratio was calculated by dividing the mortality rate of males by that of females. Mann-Kendall trend test was performed to examine time trends. Relative risks were calculated to examine differences by nationality (Qatari and non-Qatari) and sex.
Results: A significant decrease in mortality rate of children aged one to five was observed from 1.76 to 1.05 per 1000 children between 2004 and 2016 (Kendall tau=-0.6, p=0.004). Three prominent causes of mortality were motor vehicle accidents, congenital malformations of the circulatory system, and accidental drowning/submersion. A statistically non-significant decrease in childhood mortality from motor vehicle accidents was oberved for all nationalities (total (Kendall tau=-0.03), Qatari (Kendall tau=-0.14), and non-Qatari (Kendall tau=-0.12)). A significant decrease was seen for total accidental drowning and submersion (Kendall tau=-0.54, p=0.012), while no statistically significant decrease was seen for total congenital malformations of the circulatory system (Kendall tau=-0.36, NS). The Qatari population did have a significant decrease in childhood mortality due to congenital malformations of the circulatory system (Kendall tau=-0.67, p=0.003) and accidental drowning and submersion (Kendall tau=-0.55, p=0.016).
Conclusion: The study is a first attempt to evaluate childhood mortality statistics from Qatar and could be useful in supporting Qatar’s ongoing national health strategy programs.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- The Author retains copyright in the Work, where the term “Work” shall include all digital objects that may result in subsequent electronic publication or distribution.
- Upon acceptance of the Work, the author shall grant to the Publisher the right of first publication of the Work.
- The Author shall grant to the Publisher and its agents the nonexclusive perpetual right and license to publish, archive, and make accessible the Work in whole or in part in all forms of media now or hereafter known under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License or its equivalent, which, for the avoidance of doubt, allows others to copy, distribute, and transmit the Work under the following conditions:
- Attribution—other users must attribute the Work in the manner specified by the author as indicated on the journal Web site;
- The Author is able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the nonexclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the Work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), as long as there is provided in the document an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post online a prepublication manuscript (but not the Publisher’s final formatted PDF version of the Work) in institutional repositories or on their Websites prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work. Any such posting made before acceptance and publication of the Work shall be updated upon publication to include a reference to the Publisher-assigned DOI (Digital Object Identifier) and a link to the online abstract for the final published Work in the Journal.
- Upon Publisher’s request, the Author agrees to furnish promptly to Publisher, at the Author’s own expense, written evidence of the permissions, licenses, and consents for use of third-party material included within the Work, except as determined by Publisher to be covered by the principles of Fair Use.
- The Author represents and warrants that:
- the Work is the Author’s original work;
- the Author has not transferred, and will not transfer, exclusive rights in the Work to any third party;
- the Work is not pending review or under consideration by another publisher;
- the Work has not previously been published;
- the Work contains no misrepresentation or infringement of the Work or property of other authors or third parties; and
- the Work contains no libel, invasion of privacy, or other unlawful matter.
- The Author agrees to indemnify and hold Publisher harmless from Author’s breach of the representations and warranties contained in Paragraph 6 above, as well as any claim or proceeding relating to Publisher’s use and publication of any content contained in the Work, including third-party content.
Revised 7/16/2018. Revision Description: Removed outdated link.
UNICEF. Definitions: Basic indicators, under-five mortality rate. https://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/stats_popup1.html. Accessed 26 October, 2018.
WHO. Global health Observatory Data: under-five mortality. http://www.who.int/gho/child_health/mortality/mortality_under_five_text/en/. Accessed 26 October, 2018.
UNICEF. Committing to child survival: A promise renewed. Progress Report 2013. https://www.unicef.org/publications/index_70354.html. Accessed 26 October, 2018.
UN. Millenium Declaration. http://www.un.org/millennium/declaration/ares552e.htm. Accessed 26 October, 2018.
Wang H, Liddell CA, Coates MM, et al. Global, regional, and national levels of neonatal, infant, and under-5 mortality during 1990-2013;2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. The Lancet. 2014;384(9947):957-979.
Alkema L, Chao F, You D, Pedersen J, Sawyer CC. National, regional, and global sex ratios of infant, child, and under-5 mortality and identification of countries with outlying ratios: a systematic assessment. The Lancet Global Health. 2014;2(9):e521-e530.
Al-Thani M. An Overview of Infant Mortality Trends in Qatar from 2004 to 2014.Cureus 9(9). e1667
Malawi Demographic and Health Survey. Zomba: National Statistical Office; 2004. https://www.dhsprogram.com/pubs/pdf/FR175/FR-175-MW04.pdf. Accessed 26 October, 2018.
Kendall, M.G. (1948). Rank correlation methods. Oxford, England: Griffin.
Choe SA, Cho SI. Causes of child mortality (1 to 4 years of age) from 1983 to 2012 in the Republic of Korea: national vital data. J Prev Med Public Health. 2014 Nov;47(6):336-42. doi: 10.3961/jpmph.14.024.
Sekii H, Ohtsu T, Shirasawa T, Ochiai H, Shimizu T, Kokaze A. Childhood Mortality Due to Unintentional Injuries in Japan, 2000–2009. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013;10(2):528-540.
Johnston BD, Ebel BE. Child injury control: trends, themes, and controversies. Academic pediatrics. 2013;13(6):499-507.
Hill K, Upchurch DM. Gender Differences in Child Health: Evidence from the Demographic and Health Surveys. Population and Development Review. 1995;21(1):127-151.
AlMeezan. Law no. (19) of 2007 Regarding the The Traffic Law. http://www.almeezan.qa/LawView.aspx?opt&LawID=3993&language=en. Accessed 26 October, 2018.
Hamad International Training Center. Child Passenger Safety. https://www.hamad.qa/EN/your%20health/Hamad%20International%20Training%20Center/Kulluna/Pages/default.aspx. Accessed 26 October, 2018.
The Qatar National Road Safety Strategy 2013-2022. http://www.ashghal.gov.qa/en/Services/Lists/ServicesLibrary/NRSS_Eng.pdf. Accessed 26 October, 2018.
Lindholm P, Steensberg J. Epidemiology of unintentional drowning and near-drowning in Denmark in 1995. Injury Prevention. 2000;6(1):29-31.
Iqbal A, Shirin T, Ahmed T, et al. Childhood mortality due to drowning in rural Matlab of Bangladesh: magnitude of the problem and proposed solutions. Journal of health, population, and nutrition. 2007;25(3):370-376.
Salim TR. Mortality from Circulatory System Diseases and Malformations in Children in the State of Rio de Janeiro. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2016 Jun; 106(6): 464–473.
National Health Strategy 2018-2022. https://www.moph.gov.qa/HSF/Pages/NHS-18-22.aspx. Accessed 26 October, 2018.