Knowledge and Attitudes of Maintaining Bone Health among Post-Menopausal Women in Malaysia

Main Article Content

Nik Noor Kaussar Nik Mohd Hatta
Mohd Said Nurumal
Muhammad Lokman Muhammad Isa
Azlina Daud
Muhammad Ibrahim
Mohd Ariff Sharifudin
Samsul Deraman


Introduction: Public awareness of osteoporosis is low among women in the developing countries. Health education was shown to be effective in improving knowledge and awareness on maintaining bone health. This study aims to identify the level of knowledge and attitudes among post-menopausal women in Malaysia on achieving bone health throughout the menopausal transition period.

Methods: A total of 116 post-menopausal female patients of orthopedic menopause clinic were recruited using a purposive sampling approach. Data on osteoporosis awareness and knowledge were collected using validated structured questionnaires Osteoporosis Prevention and Awareness Tool and Osteoporosis Attitude Knowledge Test. The chi-square test was used to determine the association between post-menopausal women’s socio-demographic characteristics and their knowledge and attitude towards maintaining bone health.

Results: Participants’ age ranged between 49 and 82 years (61.84, SD=7.87). The knowledge of osteoporosis varied significantly by age (p=0.014) and education (p=0.001) among the studied population. No significant diffrences were found for participants’ attitude towards bone health.

Conclusion: This study showed that the age and education levels have significantly different knowledge of bone health.

Article Details

How to Cite
Hatta, N. N. K. N. M., Nurumal, M. S., Isa, M. L. M., Daud, A., Ibrahim, M., Sharifudin, M. A., & Deraman, S. (2019). Knowledge and Attitudes of Maintaining Bone Health among Post-Menopausal Women in Malaysia. Central Asian Journal of Global Health, 8(1).


Mohammadi F, Hamid TA, Yazid MN, Othman Z, Mahmud R. Lifestyle factors influencing bone mineral density in postmenopausal Malaysian women. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):132-9.

Shan LP, Bee OF, Suniza SS, Adeeb N. Developing a Malaysian Osteoporosis Screening Tool (MOST) for early osteoporosis detection in Malaysian women. Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare. 2011 Apr 1;2(2):77-82.

Garg N, Mol GV, Sethi D. (2018). An epidemiological study to assess bone mineral density and its association with contributing factors among premenopausal and postmenopausal women in selected villages of District Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India. International Journal of Reproduction, Contraception, Obstetrics and Gynecology, 7(2), 487-494.

Appelman-Dijkstra NM, Papapoulos SE. Modulating bone resorption and bone formation in opposite directions in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Drugs. 2015 Jul 1;75(10):1049-58.

Aggarwal N, Raveendran A, Khandelwal N, et al. Prevalence and related risk factors of osteoporosis in peri-and postmenopausal Indian women. Journal of mid-Life health. 2011 Jul;2(2):81.

Haron H, Shahar S, O’Brien KO, et al. Absorption of calcium from milk and tempeh consumed by postmenopausal Malay women using the dual stable isotope technique. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2010 Mar 1;61(2):125-37.

Hibler E, Kauderer J, Greene MH, Rodriguez GC, Alberts DS. Bone Loss Following Oophorectomy Among High-Risk Women: An NRG Oncology/Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Menopause (New York, NY). 2016 Nov;23(11):1228.

Osman A. Assessment of Osteoporosis KAP among women in Assir region, Saudi Arabia. Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences. 2013 Feb;4(2):50-5.

Toh LS, Lai PS, Wu DB, Wong KT, Low BY, Anderson C. The development and validation of the Osteoporosis Prevention and Awareness Tool (OPAAT) in Malaysia. PloS one. 2015 May 4;10(5):e0124553.

Samia A, Hejar AR, Suriani I, Emilia ZA. An overview of osteoporosis and heath promotional strategies for community based osteoporosis prevention in Malaysia. International Journal of Public Health and Clinical Sciences. 2017 Feb 8;4(1):28-40.

Puttapitakpong P, Chaikittisilpa S, Panyakhamlerd K, Nimnuan C, Jaisamrarn U, Taechakraichana N. Inter-correlation of knowledge, attitude, and osteoporosis preventive behaviors in women around the age of peak bone mass. BMC women’s Health. 2014 Dec;14(1):35.

Kamran M, Iftikhar A, Awan AA. Knowledge and Behaviour Regarding Osteoporosis in Women. Pakistan Armed Forces Medical Journal. 2016 Dec 1;66(6).

Barzanji AT, Alamri FA, Mohamed AG. Osteoporosis: a study of knowledge, attitude and practice among adults in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. J Community Health. 2013 Dec 1;38(6):1098-105.

Cosman F, de Beur SJ, LeBoff MS, Lewiecki EM, Tanner B, Randall S, Lindsay R. Clinician’s guide to prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Osteoporosis international. 2014 Oct 1;25(10):2359-81.

Nadiah WW, Ezane AM, Foo LH. Knowledge, attitude and dietary and lifestyle practices on bone health status among undergraduate university students in Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan. Health and the Environment Journal. 2010;1(1):34-40.

Malaysian Osteoporosis Society. Clinical Guidance on Management of Osteoporosis, 2012; 12.

von Hurst PR, Wham CA. Attitudes and knowledge about osteoporosis risk prevention: a survey of New Zealand women. Public Health Nutrition. 2007 Jul;10(7):747-53.

Dohrn IM. Physical activity and health-related quality of life in older adults with osteoporosis. Inst för neurobiologi, vårdvetenskap och samhälle/Dept of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society; 2015 Aug 26.

Coriolano-Marinus MW, Pavan MI, Lima LS, Bettencourt AR. Validation of educational material for hospital discharge of patients with prolonged domiciliary oxygen prescription. Escola Anna Nery. 2014 Jun;18(2):284-9.