Main Article Content
Introduction: Despite having one of lowest rates of newly diagnosed HIV infections among former Soviet countries, Tajikistan has a substantial level of discriminatory attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). While initial attempts were made to explore discriminatory attitudes of a wide range of professionals, women’s general attitudes towards PLWHA received less scholarly attention. Employing a nationally representative sample from the 2000 and 2005 Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS), sociodemographic determinants of HIV-related discriminatory attitudes of women aged 15-49 in Tajikistan were identified and examined over time.
Methods: A representative sample included 5,453 women of reproductive age from the capital city and four regions of Tajikistan. Two dichotomized scenarios representing the agreement to let an HIV-infected teacher continue teaching in school and the willingness to buy food from an HIV-infected cashier were constructed. Univariate and multivariable analyses of HIV-related discriminatory attitudes were obtained using Stata 14.
Results: Insignificant but positive changes were observed in the women’s attitudes between 2000 and 2005. Logistic regression models showed that negative attitudes were associated with the lack of knowledge of HIV/AIDS prevention methods, endorsement of HIV/AIDS transmission misconceptions, and never having been tested for HIV (p?0.001). Women living in the rural areas, married, with lower education, and from low income households were less tolerant towards PLWHA.
Conclusions: The data from Tajikistan underscore the persistence of HIV-related discriminatory attitudes among low socioeconomic status women. The study findings can be potentially used to target the disadvantaged groups and guide the design and implementation of programs that promote voluntary HIV-testing, raise awareness about HIV/AIDS prevention methods, and help dispel transmission misconceptions.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- The Author retains copyright in the Work, where the term “Work” shall include all digital objects that may result in subsequent electronic publication or distribution.
- Upon acceptance of the Work, the author shall grant to the Publisher the right of first publication of the Work.
- The Author shall grant to the Publisher and its agents the nonexclusive perpetual right and license to publish, archive, and make accessible the Work in whole or in part in all forms of media now or hereafter known under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License or its equivalent, which, for the avoidance of doubt, allows others to copy, distribute, and transmit the Work under the following conditions:
- Attribution—other users must attribute the Work in the manner specified by the author as indicated on the journal Web site;
- The Author is able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the nonexclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the Work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), as long as there is provided in the document an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post online a prepublication manuscript (but not the Publisher’s final formatted PDF version of the Work) in institutional repositories or on their Websites prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work. Any such posting made before acceptance and publication of the Work shall be updated upon publication to include a reference to the Publisher-assigned DOI (Digital Object Identifier) and a link to the online abstract for the final published Work in the Journal.
- Upon Publisher’s request, the Author agrees to furnish promptly to Publisher, at the Author’s own expense, written evidence of the permissions, licenses, and consents for use of third-party material included within the Work, except as determined by Publisher to be covered by the principles of Fair Use.
- The Author represents and warrants that:
- the Work is the Author’s original work;
- the Author has not transferred, and will not transfer, exclusive rights in the Work to any third party;
- the Work is not pending review or under consideration by another publisher;
- the Work has not previously been published;
- the Work contains no misrepresentation or infringement of the Work or property of other authors or third parties; and
- the Work contains no libel, invasion of privacy, or other unlawful matter.
- The Author agrees to indemnify and hold Publisher harmless from Author’s breach of the representations and warranties contained in Paragraph 6 above, as well as any claim or proceeding relating to Publisher’s use and publication of any content contained in the Work, including third-party content.
Revised 7/16/2018. Revision Description: Removed outdated link.
UNAIDS. World AIDS day report 2012. Geneva: UNAIDS; 2012.
SRC (Strategic Research Center under President of Tajikistan). National study on the stigmatization and forms of discrimination against people living with HIV, 2007. Dushanbe, Tajikistan: Strategic Research Center under President of Tajikistan; 2007.
Zainiddinov H, Habibov N. Trends and predictors of knowledge about HIV/AIDS and its prevention and transmission methods among women in Tajikistan. European Journal of Public Health 2016; 26(6):1075-9.
Zainiddinov H, Habibov N. A comparison of comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge among women across seven post-Soviet countries. Central Asian Journal of Global Health 2018; 7(1) doi: 10.5195/cajgh.2018.295|http://cajgh.pitt.edu.
Latypov A. Two decades of HIV/AIDS in Tajikistan: Reversing the tide or the coming of age paradigm? China and Eurasia Forum Quarterly 2008; 6(3):101-28.
Golobof A, Weine S, Bahromov M, Luo J. The roles of labor migrants’ wives in HIV/AIDS risk and prevention in Tajikistan. AIDS Care 2011; 23:91–7.
SSA (State Statistical Agency of the Republic of Tajikistan). Tajikistan multiple indicator cluster survey 2000. Dushanbe, Tajikistan: State Statistical Agency of the Republic of Tajikistan; 2000.
SCS (State Committee on Statistics of the Republic of Tajikistan). Tajikistan multiple indicator cluster survey 2005. Dushanbe, Tajikistan: State Committee on Statistics of the Republic of Tajikistan; 2007.
Herek GM, Capitanio JP, Widaman KF. HIV-related stigma and knowledge in the United States: Prevalence and trends, 1991–1999. American Journal of Public Health 2002;92(3):371–7.
Genberg BL et al. A comparison of HIV/AIDS-related stigma in four countries: Negative attitudes and perceived acts of discrimination towards people living with HIV/AIDS. Social Science & Medicine 2009; 68(12):2279–87.
Young SD et al. HIV-related stigma, social norms, and HIV testing in Soweto and Vulindlela, South Africa: National institutes of mental health project accept (HPTN 043). Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome 2010; 55(5):620-4.
Corno L, De Walque D. Socioeconomic determinants of stigmatization and HIV testing in Lesotho. AIDS Care 2013; 25(1):108-13.
Mutombo N, Maina B. Factors influencing attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS in Zambia: Does HIV testing matter? J Infect Dis Ther 2014; 3:197.
Terzic-Supic Z et al. Cross sectional study on attitudes of Serbian mothers with preschool children: Should a HIV-positive female teacher be allowed to continue teaching in school? BMC International Health and Human Rights 2015; 15:31.
Lau JFT, Tsui HY. Discriminatory attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS and associated factors: A population based study in Chinese general population. Sex Transm Infect 2005; 81:113–9.
Gurmu E, Etana D. HIV/AIDS knowledge and stigma among women of reproductive age in Ethiopia. African Journal of AIDS Research 2015; 14(3):191-9.
Adeneye AK et al. Willingness to seek HIV testing and counseling among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Ogun State, Nigeria. International Quarterly of Community Health Education 2006; 26(4):337–53.
Statistical Agency, Republic of Tajikistan, and ICF International. 2012 Tajikistan demographic and health survey: Key findings. Dushanbe, Tajikistan and Calverton, Maryland, USA: Statistical Agency (Tajikistan), and ICF International; 2013.
LaPiere RT. Attitudes vs. actions. Social Forces 1934; 13:230–7.
Eagly A, Chaiken S. The impact of attitudes on behavior. In: Eagly A, Chaiken S, Youngblood D, editors. The psychology of attitudes, New York: Harcourt; 1993, p. 155-281.
Holzemer WL et al. Exploring HIV stigma and quality of life for persons living with HIV infection. J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care 2009; 20(3):161–8.