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Introduction: In Kazakhstan, a post-Soviet country in Central Asia, salt intake is estimated as high, potentially contributing to the morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to explore salt intake in residents of the capital of Kazakhstan, Nur-Sultan.
Methods: An online cross-sectional survey of knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors on salt intake among young adult residents of the capital city of Kazakhstan was conducted (n = 237). Bivariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed.
Results: Although 95% (n=225) reported knowledge on the adverse health effects of high salt intake, older respondents were more aware of its association with high blood pressure (p = 0.007), heart disease (p = 0.037), and heart attack (p = 0.002). Only one-third (n=79) correctly identified the recommended level of daily salt intake. Females reported more awareness of Kazakhstani people consuming salt more than recommended (p = 0.0027) and that processed products constituted the major source of salt in diet (p = 0.007). General dietary concern (p < 0.001), high self-assessment of salt intake (p < 0.001), and older age (p = 0.012) were found to be adjusted predictors of salt-reducing behavior.
Conclusion: Lack of reported knowledge on salt-health relationship is of concern, especially among young males. A greater dietary concern and individual awareness of the excessive salt consumption is likely to assist in reducing salt intake. Further studies are required to validate the findings of this pilot study on a bigger population level in order to provide a basis for future salt related interventions and policy changes in Kazakhstan.
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