Main Article Content
Introduction: In December 2019, cases of pneumonia of unknown cause arose in Wuhan, China. The causative agent was subsequently identified as 2019-nCoV and later called SARS-CoV-2. In Mexico, since January 2020 when the first cases were reported, the spread of the infection has occurred throughout the country. The state of Guanajuato, which is located in the center of the country, has taken isolation measures and closed public places in March 2020. The objective of this study was to analyze the evolution, symptoms, co-morbidities and deaths due to confirmed cases of COVID-19.
Methods: An ecological study was designed from the database of confirmed cases of COVID-19 in the state of Guanajuato. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for symptoms and co-morbidities in deaths of confirmed cases. Logistic regression models were generated adjusting for age group and gender.
Results: Among the 838 confirmed cases in the state, cases with dyspnea and cyanosis showed more significant effect on death. Age group and gender had little involvement as confounders. For practically all comorbidities (including diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, and immunosuppression), there was a significant effect (odds ratio greater than 2) on mortality from COVID-19. Age group showed a confounding effect on comorbidities and death, but not gender.
Conclusion: The confirmed cases had more than twice the possibility of having comorbidities, compared with those who did not die.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- The Author retains copyright in the Work, where the term “Work” shall include all digital objects that may result in subsequent electronic publication or distribution.
- Upon acceptance of the Work, the author shall grant to the Publisher the right of first publication of the Work.
- The Author shall grant to the Publisher and its agents the nonexclusive perpetual right and license to publish, archive, and make accessible the Work in whole or in part in all forms of media now or hereafter known under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License or its equivalent, which, for the avoidance of doubt, allows others to copy, distribute, and transmit the Work under the following conditions:
- Attribution—other users must attribute the Work in the manner specified by the author as indicated on the journal Web site;
- The Author is able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the nonexclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the Work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), as long as there is provided in the document an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post online a prepublication manuscript (but not the Publisher’s final formatted PDF version of the Work) in institutional repositories or on their Websites prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work. Any such posting made before acceptance and publication of the Work shall be updated upon publication to include a reference to the Publisher-assigned DOI (Digital Object Identifier) and a link to the online abstract for the final published Work in the Journal.
- Upon Publisher’s request, the Author agrees to furnish promptly to Publisher, at the Author’s own expense, written evidence of the permissions, licenses, and consents for use of third-party material included within the Work, except as determined by Publisher to be covered by the principles of Fair Use.
- The Author represents and warrants that:
- the Work is the Author’s original work;
- the Author has not transferred, and will not transfer, exclusive rights in the Work to any third party;
- the Work is not pending review or under consideration by another publisher;
- the Work has not previously been published;
- the Work contains no misrepresentation or infringement of the Work or property of other authors or third parties; and
- the Work contains no libel, invasion of privacy, or other unlawful matter.
- The Author agrees to indemnify and hold Publisher harmless from Author’s breach of the representations and warranties contained in Paragraph 6 above, as well as any claim or proceeding relating to Publisher’s use and publication of any content contained in the Work, including third-party content.
Revised 7/16/2018. Revision Description: Removed outdated link.
World Health Organization. Rolling updates on coronavirus disease (COVID-19). World Health Organization. https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/events-as-they-happen . Updated 7 May 2020. Accessed: June 21, 2020.
Lu H, Stratton CW, Tang YW. Outbreak of pneumonia of unknown etiology in Wuhan, China: the mystery and the miracle. J Med Virol. 2020; 92(4):401-402. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25678
Hui DS, Azhar EI, Madani TA, Ntoumi F, Kock R, Dar O, et al. The continuing 2019-nCoV epidemic threat of novel coronaviruses to global health – the latest 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak in Wuhan, China. Int J Infect Dis. 2020; 91: 264-66 Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.01.009
Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, Ren L, Zhao J, Hu Y, et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. The Lancet. 2020; 395(10223):497-506 Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30183-5
Chen N, Zhou M, Dong X, Qu J, Gong F, Han Y, et al. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. The Lancet.2020; 395(10223): 507-513 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30211-7
Yoo JH, Hong ST. The outbreak cases with the novel coronavirus suggest upgraded quarantine and isolation in Korea. J Korean Med Sci. 2020;35(5): e62 Doi: https://doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2020.35.e62
Carlos WG, De la Cruz C, Cao B, Pasnick S, Jamil S. Novel Wuhan (2019-CoV) coronavirus. Am J Respi Crit Care Med. 2020; 201(4): 7-8 Doi: https://doi.org/10.1164/rccm.2014P7
Zhou P, Yang XL, Wang XG, Hu B, Zhang L, Zhang W, et al. A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin. Nature. 2020; 579: 270-273. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2012-7
Zhu N, Zhang D, Wang W, Li X. Yang B, Song J, et al. A novel coronavirus from patients with pneumonia in China, 2019. N Engl J Med. 2020; 382: 727:737. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2001017
World Health Organization. Clinical management of severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) when COVID-19 disease is suspected. Interim guidance. World Health Organization. 2020. https://www.who.int/publications-detail/clinical-management-ofsevere-acute-respiratory-infection-when-novel-coronavirus-(ncov)-infection-is-suspected . Accessed June 21, 2020.
Huang C, Wuang Y, Li X, Ren L, Zhao J, Hu Y, et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. The Lancet. 2020; 395(10223): 497-506 Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30183-5
Secretaría de Salud. Datos-Abiertos Bases históricas. 6 mayo 2020. Available in: https://www.gob.mx/salud/documentos/datos-abiertos-bases-historicas-direccion-general-de-epidemiologia Accessed May 20, 2020
INEGI. Mexico en Cifras. Guanajuato. INEGI. https://www.inegi.org.mx/app/areasgeograficas/?ag=11, Accessed June 21, 2020
INEGI-Población. INEGI. https://www.inegi.org.mx/temas/estructura/. Accessed: June 21, 2020
Departamento de Epidemiología de la Dirección de Servicios de Salud. Sistema Nacional de Vigilancia Epidemiológica, Dirección General de Epidemiología, Secretaría de Salud. Available in: http://www.sinave.gob.mx/ . 2020. Accessed May 21, 2020.
Matrajt L, Leung T. Evaluating the effectiveness of social distancing interventions to delay or flatten the epidemic curve of Coronavirus disease. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 2020; 26(8). Doi: http://doi.org/10.3201/eid2608.201093
Li L, Yang Z, Dang Z, Meng C, Huang J, Meng H, et al. Propagation analysis and prediction of the COVID-19. Infectious Disease Modelling. 2020; 3: 282-292. Doi: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.idm.2020.03.002
Padilla-Raygoza N, Sandoval-Salazar C, Díaz-Becerril LA, Beltran-Campos V, Díaz-Martínez DA, Navarro-Olivos E, et al. Update of the Evolution of SARS-CoV-2 infection, COVID-19, and mortality in Mexico until May 15, 2020: An Ecological Study. International Journal of Tropical Disease & Health, 2020; 41(5): 36-45. Doi: https://doi.org/10.9734/IJTDH/2020/v41i/530277 .
World Health Organization. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Situation Report – 85, April 14, 2020. Available in: https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200414-sitrep-85-covid-19.pdf?sfvrsn=7b8629bb_4 Accessed: June 21, 2020.
Guan WJ, Ni ZY, Hu Y, Laing WH, Ou CQ, He JX, et al. Clinical Characteristics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in China. N Engl J Med. 2020; 382:1708-1720. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2002032
Liu J, Liu Y, Xiang P, Pu L, Xiong H, Li C, et al. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio predicts severe illness patients with 2019 novel coronavirus in the early stage. medRxiv. 2020. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.02.10.20021584
Chen H, Gua J, Wang C, Lua F, Yu X, Zhang W, et al. Clinical characteristics and intrauterine vertical transmission potential of COVID-19 infection in nine pregnant women: a retrospective review of medical records. The Lancet. 2020; 395 (10226): 809-815. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30360-3
Huang C, Wuang Y, Li X, Ren L, Zhao J, Hu Y, et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. The Lancet. 2020;395(10223): 497-506 Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30183-5