Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphisms and Breast Cancer Risk in Kazakhstan
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Introduction: The steroid hormone 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 is thought to protect against breast cancer. The activity of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 is mediated via the vitamin D receptor (VDR), and a number of polymorphisms in the VDR gene have been identified. These result in distinct genotypes, some of which may alter susceptibility to breast cancer. Two common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the VDR gene (VDR), rs1544410 (BsmI) and rs2228570 (FokI), have been inconsistently associated with breast cancer risk. Increased risk has been reported for the FokI ff genotype, which encodes a less transcriptionally active isoform of VDR. A reduced risk has been reported for the BsmI BB genotype which may influence VDR mRNA stability.
Aim: We have investigated whether specific VDR gene polymorphisms are associated with breast cancer risk in Kazakhstan women.
Material and Methods: In a case–control study, female breast cancer patients (315) and a female control group (n=604) were tested for two VDR polymorphisms. Statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS19.0.
Results: The VDR rs2228570 (FokI) polymorphism was associated with an increased occurence of BC [rs2228570 (folk) ff vs. FF genotype: OR=1.71; 95% CI=1.21-2.43]. No association was noted between rs1544410 (BsmI) BB and breast cancer risk [OR=0.68; 95% CI=0.49-0.95].
Conclusion: Although the factors that increase breast cancer susceptibility remain uncertain, future large studies should integrate genetic variation in VDR with biomarkers of vitamin D status. Additional testing on the effect of varying genotypes on the functional mechanisms of the VDR could help to improve future testing and treatment of woman at risk for breast cancer.
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