Studies of Health Effects from Nuclear Testing near the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site, Kazakhstan

Bernd Grosche, Tamara Zhunussova, Kazbek Apsalikov, Ausrele Kesminiene

Abstract


The nuclear bomb testing conducted at the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site in Kazakhstan is of great importance for today’s radiation protection research, particularly in the area of low dose exposures. This type of radiation is of particular interest due to the lack of research in this field and how it impacts population health. In order to understand the possible health effects of nuclear bomb testing, it is important to determine what studies have been conducted on the effects of low dose exposure and dosimetry, and evaluate new epidemiologic data and biological material collected from populations living in proximity to the test site. With time, new epidemiological data has been made available, and it is possible that these data may be linked to biological samples. Next to linking existing and newly available data to examine health effects, the existing dosimetry system needs to be expanded and further developed to include residential areas, which have not yet been taken into account. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of previous studies evaluating the health effects of nuclear testing, including some information on dosimetry efforts, and pointing out directions for future epidemiologic studies.


Keywords


Semipalantinsk nuclear test site; Kazakhstan; radiation health; environmental health

Full Text:

PDF

References


Mikhailov VN. Nuclear weapon tests and nuclear explosions for peaceful purposes in the USSR 1949-1990. 1996; http://docs.nrdc.org/nuclear/files/nuc_10009601a_173.pdf. Accessed May 6, 2015.

Nugent RW, Zhumadilov ZS, Gusev BI, Hoshi M. Health effects of radiation associated with nuclear weapons testing at the Semipalatinsk Test Site. Hiroshima, Japan: Nakamoto Sogo Printing; 2000.

Matuschenko AM, Tsyrkov GA, Chernyshov AK, et al. Chronological list of nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk Test Site and their radiation effects. In: Shapiro CS, Kiselev VI, Zaitsev EV, eds. Nuclear Tests. Vol 36: Springer Berlin Heidelberg; 1998:89-97.

MELODI. Multidisciplinary European Low Dose Initiative. 2012; http://melodi-online.eu/. Accessed May 6, 2015.

Salomaa S, Prise KM, Atkinson MJ, et al. State of the art in research into the risk of low dose radiation exposure--findings of the fourth MELODI workshop. J Radiol Prot. 2013;33(3):589-603.

Gusev BI, Abylkassimova ZN, Apsalikov KN. The Semipalatinsk nuclear test site: A first assessment of the radiological situation and the test-related radiation doses in the surrounding territories. Radiat Environ Biophys. 1997;36(3):201-204.

Stephan G, Pressl S, Koshpessova G, Gusev BI. Analysis of FISH-painted chromosomes in individuals living near the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site. Radiat Res. 2001;155(6):796-800.

Dubrova YE, Bersimbaev RI, Djansugurova LB, et al. Nuclear weapons tests and human germline mutation rate. Science. 2002;295(5557):1037.

Salomaa S, Lindholm C, Tankimanova MK, et al. Stable chromosome aberrations in the lymphocytes of a population living in the vicinity of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site. Radiat Res. 2002;158(5):591-596.

Lindholm C, Murphy BP, Bigbee WL, et al. Glycophorin A somatic cell mutations in a population living in the proximity of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site. Radiat Res. 2004;162(2):164-170.

Tanaka K, Iida S, Takeichi N, et al. Unstable-type chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes from individuals living near Semipalatinsk nuclear test site. J Radiat Res. 2006;47(Suppl A):A159-A164.

World Health Organization (WHO), International Agency for Research on Cancer. SEMI-NUC: Prospective cohort study of residents near the Semipalantinsk nuclear test site - feasibility assessment. 2015; http://semi-nuc.iarc.fr/. Accessed May 6, 2015.

Shoikhet Y, Loborev V, Sudakov V, Kiselev VI, Zelenov V, Azarov L. Fallout from nuclear tests: Dosimetry in the Altai region. Radiat Environ Biophys. 2002;41(1):57-60.

Kurakina NN, Sekerbaev AK, Gusev BI, Ospanov EK. Assessment of absorbed and effective radiation doses in the population living on the radioactive traces of nuclear tests. Methodological guidelines for experts in radiation medicine and ecology. Paper presented at: Semipalatinsk 2000; Almaty.

Gordeev K, Vasilenko I, Lebedev A, et al. Fallout from nuclear tests: Dosimetry in Kazakhstan. Radiat Environ Biophys. 2002;41(1):61-67.

Gordeev K, Shinkarev S, Ilyin L, et al. Retrospective dose assessment for the population living in areas of local fallout from the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site Part I: External exposure. J Radiat Res. 2006;47(Suppl A):A129-A136.

Simon SL, Baverstock KF, Lindholm C, World Health Organization, Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority in Finland, National Cancer Institute. A summary of evidence on radiation exposures received near to the Semipalatinsk nuclear weapons test site in Kazakhstan. Health Phys. 2003;84(6):718-725.

Simon SL, Beck HL, Gordeev K, et al. External dose estimates for Dolon village: application of the U.S./Russian joint methodology. J Radiat Res. 2006;47(Suppl A):A143-A147.

Stepanenko VF, Hoshi M, Bailiff IK, et al. Around Semipalatinsk nuclear test site: progress of dose estimations relevant to the consequences of nuclear tests (a summary of 3rd Dosimetry Workshop on the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site area, RIRBM, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, 9-11 of March, 2005). J Radiat Res. 2006;47(Suppl A):A1-A13.

Bul'bulian MA, Tokareva GD. Descriptive epidemiological study of malignant neoplasms in the Semipalatinsk district of the Kazakh S. S. R. Vestn Akad Med Nauk SSSR. 1991(7):59-63.

Gusev BI, Rosenson RI, Abylkassimova ZN. The Semipalatinsk nuclear test site: A first analysis of solid cancer incidence (selected sites) due to test-related radiation. Radiat Environ Biophys. 1998;37(3):209-214.

Zaridze DG, Li N, Men T, Duffy SW. Childhood cancer incidence in relation to distance from the former nuclear testing site in Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan. Int J Cancer. 1994;59(4):471-475.

Bauer S, Gusev BI, Pivina LM, Apsalikov KN, Grosche B. Radiation exposure due to local fallout from Soviet atmospheric nuclear weapons testing in Kazakhstan: Solid cancer mortality in the Semipalatinsk historical cohort, 1960-1999. Radiat Res. 2005;164(4 Pt 1):409-419.

Bauer S, Gusev BI, Pivina LM, Apsalikov KN, Grosche B. Esophagus cancer and radiation exposure due to nuclear test fallout: An analysis based on the data of the Semipalatinsk historical cohort, 1960-1999. Radiat Biol Radioecol. 2006;46(5):611-618.

Grosche B, Lackland DT, Land CE, et al. Mortality from cardiovascular diseases in the semipalatinsk historical cohort, 1960-1999, and its relationship to radiation exposure. Radiat Res. 2011;176(5):660-669.

Land CE, Zhumadilov Z, Gusev BI, et al. Ultrasound-detected thyroid nodule prevalence and radiation dose from fallout. Radiat Res. 2008;169(4):373-383.

Apsalikov K, Muldagaliev T, Apsalikov R, Serikkankyzy S, Zholambaeva Z. Radiation risk factors in incidence and mortality among exposed individuals of East Kazakhstan. CAJGH. 2013;2(Suppl).

Mudie NY, Gusev BI, Pivina LM, et al. Sex ratio in the offspring of parents with chronic radiation exposure from nuclear testing in Kazakhstan. Radiat Res. 2007;168(5):600-607.

Mudie NY, Swerdlow AJ, Gusev BI, et al. Twinning in the offspring of parents with chronic radiation exposure from nuclear testing in Kazakhstan. Radiat Res. 2010;173(6):829-836.

Katayama H, Apsalikov KN, Gusev BI, et al. An attempt to develop a database for epidemiological research in Semipalatinsk. J Radiat Res. 2006;47(Suppl A):A189-A197.

Kyōkai HE. Study on health effects of radiation on residents near the former Semipalatinsk nuclear test site: The final report of the 2001-2009 study. Tokyo, Japan: Radiation Effects Association; 2010.

The Ministry of Public Health of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The Research Institute for Radiation Medicine and Ecology. 2013; http://de.slideshare.net/IRPslideshare/inst-radiology-med. Accessed May 6, 2015.

STORE Database. STORE Database. 2014; http://www.rbstore.eu/. Accessed May 6, 2015.

Akleyev AV, Grosche B, Gusev BI, et al. Developing additional resources. Radiat Environ Biophys. 2002;41(1):13-18.

Gilbert ES, Land CE, Simon SL. Health effects from fallout. Health Phys. 2002;82(5):726-735.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.5195/cajgh.2015.127

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.