Main Article Content
This paper discusses the need for change from Kazakhstan’s current disease-centric healthcare paradigm to a new primary health and wellness-centric health care paradigm, technology-driven and based on personal relationships within a social context. While many different papers have been published about the importance of prevention and primary health care, few have focused on healthcare transition in Kazakhstan or other countries in Central Asia. The WHO’s historic 1978 Alma-Ata Declaration signed in Kazakhstan promoted the centrality of primary care to the provision of effective, efficient, and equitable health services. Modern technologies such as the Internet, social media, and portable medical devices democratize medicine, providing great opportunities to rethink the Alma-Ata Declaration and reinvent primary health care on an entirely new platform that is knowledge-based and technology-assisted. The new paradigm suggested for the future development of health in Central Asian region emphasizes personal relationships and encourages sustainable solutions created by communities. This paper also introduces HealthCity, a new project in Kazakhstan aiming at introducing private, community-based and standardized primary healthcare that is driven by SmartHealth innovative technology.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- The Author retains copyright in the Work, where the term “Work” shall include all digital objects that may result in subsequent electronic publication or distribution.
- Upon acceptance of the Work, the author shall grant to the Publisher the right of first publication of the Work.
- The Author shall grant to the Publisher and its agents the nonexclusive perpetual right and license to publish, archive, and make accessible the Work in whole or in part in all forms of media now or hereafter known under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License or its equivalent, which, for the avoidance of doubt, allows others to copy, distribute, and transmit the Work under the following conditions:
- Attribution—other users must attribute the Work in the manner specified by the author as indicated on the journal Web site;
- The Author is able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the nonexclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the Work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), as long as there is provided in the document an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post online a prepublication manuscript (but not the Publisher’s final formatted PDF version of the Work) in institutional repositories or on their Websites prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work. Any such posting made before acceptance and publication of the Work shall be updated upon publication to include a reference to the Publisher-assigned DOI (Digital Object Identifier) and a link to the online abstract for the final published Work in the Journal.
- Upon Publisher’s request, the Author agrees to furnish promptly to Publisher, at the Author’s own expense, written evidence of the permissions, licenses, and consents for use of third-party material included within the Work, except as determined by Publisher to be covered by the principles of Fair Use.
- The Author represents and warrants that:
- the Work is the Author’s original work;
- the Author has not transferred, and will not transfer, exclusive rights in the Work to any third party;
- the Work is not pending review or under consideration by another publisher;
- the Work has not previously been published;
- the Work contains no misrepresentation or infringement of the Work or property of other authors or third parties; and
- the Work contains no libel, invasion of privacy, or other unlawful matter.
- The Author agrees to indemnify and hold Publisher harmless from Author’s breach of the representations and warranties contained in Paragraph 6 above, as well as any claim or proceeding relating to Publisher’s use and publication of any content contained in the Work, including third-party content.
Revised 7/16/2018. Revision Description: Removed outdated link.
Devi S. Reforming health care in Kazakhstan. Lancet. 2014;383(9936):2197-2198.
Terlikbayeva A, Hermosilla S, Galea S, et al. Tuberculosis in Kazakhstan: Analysis of risk determinants in national surveillance data. BMC Infect Dis. 2012;12:262.
World Health Organization (WHO). BMI Kazakhstan pharmaceuticals and healthcare report Q2. 2013.
Agency of Statistics of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Quarterly household budget survey produced together with GDP estimates. www.stat.kz.
WHO EURO. 10 health questions about the Caucasus and Central Asia. 2009; www.ho.int/nha.
Oxford Policy Management. Report on current funds flow and current pattern of health care expenditure by economic and functional categories in public and private sectors and on the impact of the new budget re-allocation model in Kazakhstan. 2011.
Sharman A. Modernization and growth in Kazakhstan. CAJGH. 2012;1(1).
Gawande A. The velluvial matrix. 2010.
Makary M. How to stop hospitals from killing us. The Wall Street Journal2012.
Topol E. The creative destruction of medicine: How the digital revolution will create better health care. Basic Books; 2012.
World Health Organization (WHO). Constitution of the World Health Organization. 2013; http://www.who.int/governance/eb/who_constitution_en.pdf.
World Health Organization (WHO). Declaration of Alma-Ata: International conference on primary health care. 1978; http://www.who.int/publications/almaata_declaration_en.pdf.
Sharmanov T, McAlister A, Sharman A. Health care in Kazakhstan. World Health Forum. 1996;17(2):197-199.
Knowledge @ Warton. Family physicians make a comeback in India. 2013; http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/india/article.cfm?articleid=4719. Accessed August 7, 2014.
Chan M. Return to Alma-Ata. Lancet. 2008;372(9642):865-866.
Lubell J. Economists outline strategy to counter primary care shortage. 2013; http://www.ama-assn.org/amednews/2013/01/14/gvsd0118.htm. Accessed August 7, 2014.
Painter K. 35% of Americans ask Dr. Google for medical diagnoses. USA Today2013.
Google.org. Explore flu trends - United States. 2011; http://www.google.org/flutrends/us/#US.
Academy of Preventive Medicine of Kazakhstan. Final report on 2012 National Household Health Survey. Almaty-Astana2013.
Harvard Medical International, The Chartis Group. Bringing world-class healthcare to Almaty. 2007.
HealthCity. HealthCity. www.healthcity.kz.