Hydatid Disease in the Central Region of Iran: A 5-year Epidemiological and Clinical Overview

Aliasghar Farazi, Nader Zarinfar, Farhad Kayhani, Firoozeh Khazaie

Abstract


Introduction: Hydatid cyst is caused by an infection by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus. Patients with cystic echinococcosis often remain asymptomatic until the hydatid cysts grow large enough to cause symptoms and signs. The cysts grow in the course of several years before reaching maturity and the rate of growth depends on the location of the cyst.

Methods: This study was conducted in the Central region of Iran and involved all patients diagnosed with hydatid disease from 2012 to 2016 with the records identifed from 10 centers for disease control. Descriptive statistics including range and percentage were used in analyzing the patient characteristics.

Results: Hydatid disease was confirmed in 84 cases. The mean age of patients was (23.1±5.1) years (range: 15-53 years) and 55.9% of cases were female. Single organ involvement was found in 86.9% of cases. 98.8% cases were successfully treated. The most common sites of infection were lung (42.9%), followed by liver (38.1%), and joint liver/lung (10.7%). The diagnosis was established by abdominal ultrasound, abdominal CT, and serology in all patients. The diagnosis was confirmed by histology in 80 (95.2%) of cases. All of cases were treated with albendazole, and 80 (95.2%) of cases had surgical intervention. The prevalence of human hydatidosis in our study was 1.16 per 100,000 population.

Conclusions: Hydatid disease is common in Iran and should be a focus of public health interventions. The organ sites affected in this study include lung and liver.


Keywords


Echinococcus granulosus; Epidemiology; Hydatid disease

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.5195/cajgh.2019.364

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