Main Article Content
Introduction: Psychological aspects are important issues in patients that will have significant effects on disease progression. A new and important psychological concern is self-blame. This review was performed with the aim of systematic review on studies around patient’s self-blame.
Methods: This is a systematic review using international databases including PubMed (since 1950), Scopus (since 2004), Web of Sciences (since 1900), and ProQuest (since 1938) and Iranian databases including SID (since 2004) and Magiran (since 2001). Mesh terms including “patient,” “regret,” and “guilt” and non-Mesh terms including “self-blame attribution,” “characterological self-blame,” “behavioral self-blame,” and “blame” were used in Iranian and international databases with OR and AND operators.
Results: The review yielded 59 articles; 15 articles were included in the present study. The ages of patients ranged from 29-68.4 years. Most of studies (86.6%) had cross-sectional design and use characterological self-blame and behavioral self-blame variables for assessing self-blame attributions. The results showed that in most studies, a significant relationship among self-blame and psychological distress, anxiety, and depression were reported.
Conclusion: A significant relation was reported between self-blaming and the degree of distress, anxiety, and depression in patients in most of the studies.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- The Author retains copyright in the Work, where the term “Work” shall include all digital objects that may result in subsequent electronic publication or distribution.
- Upon acceptance of the Work, the author shall grant to the Publisher the right of first publication of the Work.
- The Author shall grant to the Publisher and its agents the nonexclusive perpetual right and license to publish, archive, and make accessible the Work in whole or in part in all forms of media now or hereafter known under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License or its equivalent, which, for the avoidance of doubt, allows others to copy, distribute, and transmit the Work under the following conditions:
- Attribution—other users must attribute the Work in the manner specified by the author as indicated on the journal Web site;
- The Author is able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the nonexclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the Work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), as long as there is provided in the document an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post online a prepublication manuscript (but not the Publisher’s final formatted PDF version of the Work) in institutional repositories or on their Websites prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work. Any such posting made before acceptance and publication of the Work shall be updated upon publication to include a reference to the Publisher-assigned DOI (Digital Object Identifier) and a link to the online abstract for the final published Work in the Journal.
- Upon Publisher’s request, the Author agrees to furnish promptly to Publisher, at the Author’s own expense, written evidence of the permissions, licenses, and consents for use of third-party material included within the Work, except as determined by Publisher to be covered by the principles of Fair Use.
- The Author represents and warrants that:
- the Work is the Author’s original work;
- the Author has not transferred, and will not transfer, exclusive rights in the Work to any third party;
- the Work is not pending review or under consideration by another publisher;
- the Work has not previously been published;
- the Work contains no misrepresentation or infringement of the Work or property of other authors or third parties; and
- the Work contains no libel, invasion of privacy, or other unlawful matter.
- The Author agrees to indemnify and hold Publisher harmless from Author’s breach of the representations and warranties contained in Paragraph 6 above, as well as any claim or proceeding relating to Publisher’s use and publication of any content contained in the Work, including third-party content.
Revised 7/16/2018. Revision Description: Removed outdated link.
Vos T, Barber RM, Bell B, et al. Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 301 acute and chronic diseases and injuries in 188 countries, 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. The Lancet. 2015;386(9995):743-800.
Callebaut L, Molyneux P, Alexander T. The Relationship Between Self‐Blame for the Onset of a Chronic Physical Health Condition and Emotional Distress: A Systematic Literature Review. Clinical psychology & psychotherapy. 2017;24(4):965-986.
Health Do. Long term conditions compendium of information. Department of Health London; 2012.
Dornelas EA, Sears SF. Living with heart despite recurrent challenges: Psychological care for adults with advanced cardiac disease. American Psychologist. 2018;73(8):1007.
Bennett KK, Compas BE, Beckjord E, Glinder JG. Self-blame and distress among women with newly diagnosed breast cancer. Journal of Behavioral Medicine. 2005;28(4):313-323.
Janoff-Bulman R. Characterological versus behavioral self-blame: Inquiries into depression and rape. Journal of personality and social psychology. 1979;37(10):1798.
Plaufcan MR, Wamboldt FS, Holm KE. Behavioral and characterological self-blame in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Journal of psychosomatic research. 2012;72(1):78-83.
Glinder JG, Compas BE. Self-blame attributions in women with newly diagnosed breast cancer: A prospective study of psychological adjustment. Health Psychology. 1999;18(5):475.
Vasconcelos e Sa D, Barrowclough C, Hartley S, Wearden A. Self‐blame attributions in relatives of people with recent‐onset psychosis: Associations with relatives’ distress and behavioural control. British Journal of Clinical Psychology. 2017;56(2):172-188.
Harry KM, Bennett KK, Clark JM, Howarter AD, Eways KR. Self-blame attributions and cardiac symptom experiences in cardiac rehabilitation patients: A preliminary study. North American Journal of Psychology. 2015;17(3):541.
Yang KM, Chae MJ, So HS. Stigma and Distress among Cancer Patients: The Mediating Effect of Self-blame. Korean Journal of Adult Nursing. 2018;30(1):89-97.
Bennett KK, Marte RM. Patient attributions for cardiac events: Predictors of physical and psychological recovery. Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 2013;43(3):660-672.
Panic N, Leoncini E, De Belvis G, Ricciardi W, Boccia S. Evaluation of the endorsement of the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA) statement on the quality of published systematic review and meta-analyses. PloS one. 2013;8(12):e83138.
Von Elm E, Altman DG, Egger M, et al. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies. International journal of surgery. 2014;12(12):1495-1499.
Tong A, Sainsbury P, Craig J. Consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research (COREQ): a 32-item checklist for interviews and focus groups. International journal for quality in health care. 2007;19(6):349-357.
Malcarne VL, Compas BE, Epping-Jordan JE, Howell DC. Cognitive factors in adjustment to cancer: Attributions of self-blame and perceptions of control. Journal of Behavioral Medicine. 1995;18(5):401-417.
Sholomskas DE, Steil JM, Plummer JK. The Spinal Cord Injured Revisited: The Relationship Between Self‐Blame, Other‐Blame and Coping. Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 1990;20(7):548-574.
Else-Quest NM, LoConte NK, Schiller JH, Hyde JS. Perceived stigma, self-blame, and adjustment among lung, breast and prostate cancer patients. Psychology and Health. 2009;24(8):949-964.
Zahn R, Lythe KE, Gethin JA, et al. The role of self-blame and worthlessness in the psychopathology of major depressive disorder. Journal of affective disorders. 2015;186:337-341.
Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Williams DA. Self-blame, compliance, and distress among burn patients. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1987;53(1):187.
Friedman LC, Barber CR, Chang J, et al. Self-blame, self-forgiveness, and spirituality in breast cancer survivors in a public sector setting. Journal of Cancer Education. 2010;25(3):343-348.
Friedman LC, Romero C, Elledge R, et al. Attribution of blame, self-forgiving attitude and psychological adjustment in women with breast cancer. Journal of behavioral medicine. 2007;30(4):351-357.
Sheridan N, Kenealy T, Salmon E, Rea H, Raphael D, Schmidt-Busby J. Helplessness, self blame and faith may impact on self management in COPD: a qualitative study. Primary Care Respiratory Journal. 2011;20(3):307.
Halding AG, Heggdal K, Wahl A. Experiences of self‐blame and stigmatisation for self‐infliction among individuals living with COPD. Scandinavian journal of caring sciences. 2011;25(1):100-107.
Phelan SM, Griffin JM, Jackson GL, et al. Stigma, perceived blame, self‐blame, and depressive symptoms in men with colorectal cancer. Psycho‐oncology. 2013;22(1):65-73.
Beverly EA, Ritholz MD, Brooks KM, et al. A qualitative study of perceived responsibility and self-blame in type 2 diabetes: reflections of physicians and patients. Journal of general internal medicine. 2012;27(9):1180-1187.
Ali A, Toner BB, Stuckless N, et al. Emotional abuse, self-blame, and self-silencing in women with irritable bowel syndrome. Psychosomatic Medicine. 2000;62(1):76-82.
Bennett KK, Howarter AD, Clark JM. Self-blame attributions, control appraisals and distress among cardiac rehabilitation patients. Psychology & health. 2013;28(6):637-652.
Ham S-M, Hyun M-H. The mediating effects of self blame moderated by ruminative response style on the relationship between self-focused attention and depression: Focused on gender differences. Korean Journal of Stress Research. 2015;23(4):225-235.
Kolubinski DC, Nikčević AV, Lawrence JA, Spada MM. The role of metacognition in self-critical rumination: an investigation in individuals presenting with low self-esteem. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy. 2016;34(1):73-85.
Smart LM, Peters JR, Baer RA. Development and validation of a measure of self-critical rumination. Assessment. 2016;23(3):321-332.
Martins TC, Canavarro MC, Moreira H. Adult attachment insecurity and dyadic adjustment: The mediating role of self‐criticism. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice. 2015;88(4):378-393.
Dinger U, Barrett MS, Zimmermann J, et al. Interpersonal problems, dependency, and self‐criticism in major depressive disorder. Journal of clinical psychology. 2015;71(1):93-104.
Abi-Habib R, Luyten P. The role of dependency and self-criticism in the relationship between anger and depression. Personality and Individual Differences. 2013;55(8):921-925.
Kochaki Amirhendeh M, Karbalayi A, Sabet M. The Mediating Role of Anger Rumination and Self-Criticism Rumination in Relationship between Disaffection and Marital Violence. Thoughts and Behavior in Clinical Psychology. 2017;11(43):47-56.
Sweegers MG, Buffart LM, van Veldhuizen WM, et al. How Does a Supervised Exercise Program Improve Quality of Life in Patients with Cancer? A Concept Mapping Study Examining Patients' Perspectives. The oncologist. 2018:theoncologist. 2017-0613.
Liu RT, Kleiman EM, Nestor BA, Cheek SM. The hopelessness theory of depression: A quarter‐century in review. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice. 2015;22(4):345-365.
Kaur M, Kaur I. Dysfunctional attitude and self-blame: Effect on self-esteem and self-conscious emotions among adolescents. The International Journal of Indian Psychology. 2015;3(1):112-127.
Dweck CS. The role of expectations and attributions in the alleviation of learned helplessness. Journal of personality and social psychology. 1975;31(4):674.
Skinner EA, Zimmer-Gembeck MJ. Perceived control and the development of coping. The Oxford handbook of stress, health, and coping. 2011:35-59.
Kring AM, Johnson SL. Abnormal psychology: The science and treatment of psychological disorders. Wiley; 2018.
Lythe KE, Moll J, Gethin JA, et al. Self-blame–selective hyperconnectivity between anterior temporal and subgenual cortices and prediction of recurrent depressive episodes. JAMA psychiatry. 2015;72(11):1119-1126.