Emerging Infectious Diseases, Antimicrobial Resistance and Millennium Development Goals: Resolving the Challenges through One Health

G. V. Asokan, R. K. Kasimanickam

Abstract


Most emerging infectious diseases are zoonoses, which could severely hamper reaching the targets of millennium development goals (MDG). Five out of the total eight MDG’s are strongly associated with the Emerging Infectious Diseases (EIDs). Recent emergence and dissemination of drug-resistant pathogens has accelerated and prevent reaching the targets of MDG, with shrinking of therapeutic arsenal, mostly due to antimicrobial resistance (AMR). World Health Organization (WHO has identified AMR as 1 of the 3 greatest threats to global health.

Until now, methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) have been observed in hospital-acquired infections. In India, within a span of three years, New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase prevalence has risen from three percent in hospitals to twenty- fifty percent and is found to be colistin resistant as well. Routine use of antimicrobials in animal husbandry accounts for more than 50% in tonnage of all antimicrobial production to promote growth and prophylaxis. This has consequences to human health and environmental contamination with a profound impact on the environmental microbiome, resulting in resistance.

Antibiotic development is now considered a global health crisis. The average time required to receive regulatory approval is 7.2 years. Moreover, the clinical approval success is only 16%. To overcome resistance in antimicrobials, intersectoral partnerships among medical, veterinary, and environmental disciplines, with specific epidemiological, diagnostic, and therapeutic approaches are needed. Joint efforts under “One Health”, beyond individual professional boundaries are required to stop antimicrobial resistance against zoonoses (EID) and reach the MDG.


Full Text:

HTML PDF

References


United Nations. United Nations Millennium Development Goals. http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/reports.shtml. Accessed July 27, 2013.

Taylor LH, Latham SM, Woolhouse MEJ. Risk factors for human disease emergence. Phil Trans R Soc Lond B. 2001;356(1411):983-989.

Woolhouse MEJ, Taylor LH, Haydon DT. Population biology of multihost pathogens. Science. 2001;292(5519):1109-1112.

Venn-Watson S, Stamper A, Rowles T. Thinking outside the terrestrial box: How high-priority, emerging, and zoonotic marine mammal pathogens reflect those of human pathogens. Eco Health. 2011;7.

Karesh WB, Dobson A, Lloyd-Smith JO, et al. Ecology of zoonoses: Natural and unnatural histories. Lancet. 2012;380(9857):1936-1945.

American Veterinary Medical Association. One Health. https://www.avma.org/KB/Resources/Reference/Pages/One-Health94.aspx. Accessed May 23, 2013.

One Health Initiative. www.onehealthinitiative.com. Accessed October 10, 2013.

World Health Organization. WHO World Health Day. http://www.who.int/world-health-day/2011/en/index.html. Accessed August 11, 2013.

Thoen CO, Steele JH, Gilsdorf MJ. Mycobacterium bovis infection in animals and humans, 2nd edition. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(8):1306.

Castanheira M, Deshpande LM, Farrell SE, Shetye S, Shah N, Jones RN. Update on the prevalence and genetic characterization of NDM-1-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Indian hospitals during 2010. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2013;75(2):210-213.

Acar JF, Moulin G, Page SW, Pastoret PP. Antimicrobial resistance in animal and public health: Introduction and classification of antimicrobial agents. Rev Sci Tech. 2012;31(1):15-21.

US Food and Drug Administration. 2010 summary report on antimicrobials sold or distributed for use in food producing animals. 2011; http://www.fda.gov/downloads/ForIndustry/UserFees/animalDrugUserFeeActADUFA/M277657.pdf. Accessed August 15, 2013.

Marshall BM, Levy S. Food animals and antibiotics: Impacts on human health. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2011;24(4):718-733.

Aarestrup FM, Jensen VF, Emborg HD, Jacobsen E, Wegener HC. Changes in the use of antimicrobials and the effects on productivity of swine farms in Denmark. Am J Vet Res. 2010;71(7):726-733.

Ansari F, Molana H, Goossens H, Davey P. ESAC II Hospital Care Study Group. Development of standardized methods for analysis of changes in antibacterial use in hospitals from 18 European countries: the European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption (ESAC) longitudinal survey. Antimicrob Chemother. 2010;65(12):2685-2691.

Wright GD. Antibiotic resistance in the environment: A link to the clinic. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2010;13(5):589-594.

D'Costa VM, King CE, Kalan L, et al. Antibiotic resistance is ancient. Nature. 2011;477(7365):457-461.

Aidara-Kane A. Containment of antimicrobial resistance due to use of antimicrobial agents in animals intended for food: WHO perspective. Rev Sci Tech. 2012;31(1):277-287.

Infective Diseases Society of America (IDSA). Combating antimicrobial resistance: policy recommendations to save lives. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;52(5):S397-428.

Aminov RI. A brief history of the antibiotic era: lessons learned and challenges for the future. Front Microbiol. 2010;1:134.

Sharma P, Towse A. New drugs to tackle antimicrobial resistance: analysis of EU policy options. http://www.ohe./org/publications/article/new-drugs-totackle-2012resistance-5.cfm. Accessed July 9, 2013.

Kaitin KI. Deconstructing the drug development process: The new face of innovation. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2010;87(3):356-361.

The NIH Common Fund. Common Fund Initiative. http://nihroadmap.nih.gov/initiatives.asp. Accessed May 16, 2013.

Taubes G. The bacteria fight back. Science. 2008;321(5887):356-361.

Infectious Diseases Society of America. The 10×20 Initiative: Pursuing a global commitment to develop 10 new antibacterial drugs by 2020. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;50(8):1081-1083.

Spellberg B, Guidos R, Gilbert D, et al. The epidemic of antibiotic resistant infections: A call to action for the medical community from the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;46(2):155-164.

Spellberg B, Powers JH, Brass EP, Miller LG, Edwards JE. Trends in antimicrobial drug development: Implications for the future. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;38(9):1279-1286.

Braine T. Race against time to develop new antibiotics. Bull World Health Organ. 2011;89(2):88-89.

Butler MS, Cooper MA. Antbiotics in the clinical pipeline in 2011. J Antibiot (Tokyo). 2011;64(6):413-425.

Boucher HW, Talbot GH, Bradley JS, et al. Bad bugs, no drugs: no ESKAPE! An update from the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;48(1):1-12.

Tang H, Huang T, Jing J, Shen H, Cui W. Effect of procalcitonin guided treatment in patients with infections: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Infection. 2009;37(6):497-507.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.5195/cajgh.2013.76

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




License URL: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/us/